For US Healthcare Professionals

Explore axSpA clinical manifestations in the hall of statues

Get to know the clinical manifestations

  • Sacroiliitis and spondylitis
  • Extra-musculoskeletal
  • Peripheral articular

Important distinctions are emerging about which cytokines contribute to various clinical manifestations

Gaze upon the Gallery of Cytokines


Burden of disease

Understand the axSpA burden of disease and the impact on patients’ quality of life.

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Clinical features

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  1. van den Berg R, de Hooge M, van Gaalen F, et al. Percentage of patients with spondyloarthritis in patients referred because of chronic back pain and performance of classification criteria: experience from the spondyloarthritis caught early (SPACE) cohort. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52(8):1492-1499. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket164
  2. Sieper J, Braun J, Dougados M, et al. Axial spondyloarthritis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015;1:15013
  3. Garg N, van den Bosch F, Deodhar A. The concept of spondyloarthritis: where are we now? Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2014;28(5):663–672. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2014.10.007
  4. de Winter JJ, van Mens LJ, van der Heijde D, et al. Prevalence of peripheral and extra-articular disease in ankylosing spondylitis versus non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a meta-analysis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016;18(1):196. doi:10.1186/s13075-016-1093-z
  5. Roche D, Badard M, Boyer L, et al. Incidence of anterior uveitis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis treated with anti-TNF or anti-IL17A: a systematic review, a pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Res Ther. 2021;23(1):192.
  6. Guly CM, Forrester JV. Investigation and management of uveitis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4976. Published 2010. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4976
  7. Rademacher J, Poddubnyy D, Pleyer U. Uveitis in spondyloarthritis. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2020;12:1759720X20951733. Published 2020. doi:10.1177/
  8. van der Horst-Bruinsma IE, van Bentum RE, Verbraak FD, et al. Reduction of anterior uveitis flares in patients with axial spondyloarthritis on certolizumab pegol treatment: final 2-year results from the multicenter phase IV C-VIEW study. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2021;13:1759720X211003803.
  9. Meier K, Schloegl A, Poddubnyy D, Ghoreschi K. Skin manifestations in spondyloarthritis. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2020;12:1759720X20975915. Published 2020. doi:10.1177/1759720X20975915
  10. Benavent D, Plasencia-Rodríguez C, Franco-Gómez K, et al. Axial spondyloarthritis and axial psoriatic arthritis: similar or different disease spectrum? Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2020;12:1–8. doi: 10.1177/1759720X20971889.
  11. Fragoulis GE, Liava C, Daoussis D, et al. Inflammatory bowel diseases and spondyloarthropathies: From pathogenesis to treatment. World J Gastroenterol. 2019;25(18):2162-2176. doi:10.3748/wjg.v25.i18.2162
  12. CDC. What is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)? - inflammatory bowel disease - division of Population Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Page last reviewed: April 13, 2022. Accessed October 19, 2022
  13. López-Medina C, Molto A, Sieper J, et al. Prevalence and distribution of peripheral musculoskeletal manifestations in spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis: results of the worldwide, cross-sectional ASAS-PerSpA study. RMD Open. 2021;7(1):e001450. doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001450
  14. Mease PJ, Liu M, Rebello S, et al. Characterization of patients with axial spondyloarthritis by enthesitis presence: data from the Corrona Psoriatic Arthritis/Spondyloarthritis Registry. ACR Open Rheumatol. 2020;7:449-456.
  15. López-Medina C, Dougados M, Ruyssen-Witrand A, et al. Evaluation of concomitant peripheral arthritis in patients with recent onset axial spondyloarthritis: 5-year results from the DESIR cohort. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019;21(1):139. Published 2019. doi:10.1186/s13075-019-1927-6